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2019年英语专业八级真题听力 Mini-lecture(2)

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I also notice another interesting thing about this.

关于这一点,我还发现了另一个有趣的现象。
It seems women are much more likely to do this kind of thing than men.
女性似乎比男性更有可能做出这种动作。
I mean women are more likely to make themselves small.
我的意思是,女性更有可能让自己变小。
Women feel chronically less powerful than men, so this is not surprising.
女性总感觉自己的力量比男性弱,因此这并不令人惊讶。
The second question concerns our minds.
第二个问题是关于我们的意识。
We know that our minds change our bodies.
我们知道,我们的意识会改变我们的身体。
But is it also true that our bodies change our minds?
但我们的身体也可以改变我们的意识吗?
And when I say minds, in the case of the powerful, what do I mean?
当我说到意识的时候,以强大的力量为例,这是什么意思呢?
I'm talking about thoughts and feelings and the sort of physiological things that make up our thoughts and feelings,
我在说想法和感觉,以及组成我们想法和感觉的生理上的东西,
and in my case, that's hormones.
就这件事而言,是指激素。
I look at hormones.
我来讲讲激素。
So what do the minds of the powerful versus the powerless look like?
那么,强大的人的意识与无力的人的意识看起来是怎样的呢?
Powerful people tend to be, not surprisingly, more assertive and more confident, more optimistic.
毫无疑问,强大的人往往更加坚定、自信而乐观。
They actually feel that they're going to win even at games of chance.
事实上,他们感觉自己会胜利,即使在博弈中也会如此。
They also tend to be able to think more abstractly.
他们往往还具有抽象思维。
They take more risks.
他们会冒更多的险。
So there are a lot of differences between powerful and powerless people.
因此,强大和无力的人有许多不同之处。
Physiologically, there also are differences on two key hormones: one is dominance hormone, and the other is stress hormone.
从生理上来说,在两种关键激素中有许多不同:一个是主导性激素,另一种是皮质醇。
What we find is that powerful and effective leaders have high dominance hormone and low stress hormone.
我们发现,强大且有效率的领导含主导性激素较高,而含皮质醇较低。
What does that mean?
这意味着什么呢?
That means power is also about how you react to stress.
这意味着,力量还与你如何应对压力有关。
Once we did an experiment.
我们做过一个实验。
We decided to bring people into the lab and run that little experiment.
我们决定带一些人走进实验室做个小实验。
These people adopted, for two minutes, either high-power poses or low-power poses.
这些人有的摆出强有力的姿势,有的摆出无力的姿势,时长都是2分钟。
We, for two minutes, say, "You need to do this or this."
“你需要摆出这个姿势或这个姿势。”这句话我们说了2分钟。
And we also want them to be feeling power.
我们还想让他们感受到力量。
So after two minutes we will ask them "How powerful do you feel?" on a series of items, and then we give them an opportunity to gamble.
因此,2分钟后,我们会就一系列的事项问他们:“你们感觉有多少力量?”,然后我们给他们一个赌博的机会。
Before and after the experiment, we take their samples of saliva for a hormone test.
实验前后,我们取他们的唾液样本进行激素试验。
That's the whole experiment.
这就是整个实验过程。
And this is what we have found -- risk tolerance, which is gambling.
这就是我们发现的结果——风险承受能力,也就是赌博。
What we find is that when you're in the high-power pose condition, 86 percent of you will gamble.
我们发现,当你摆出强有力的姿势时,你有86%的可能性会赌博。
When you're in the low-power pose condition, it's down to only 60 percent, and that's a pretty significant difference.
当你摆出无力的姿势时,这个百分比会下降到仅60%,这是一个非常显著的差异。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
minutes ['minits]

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n. 会议记录,(复数)分钟

 
saliva [sə'laivə]

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n. 唾液

联想记忆
X
单词saliva 联想记忆:
Sali三立,va:马三立在说单口相声的时候满嘴喷吐沫-口水
 
confident ['kɔnfidənt]

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adj. 自信的,有信心的,有把握的
a

联想记忆
X
单词confident 联想记忆:
con全部+fid相信+ent表示形容词,“…的”→自信的
 
optimistic [.ɔpti'mistik]

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adj. 乐观的,乐观主义的

 
opportunity [.ɔpə'tju:niti]

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n. 机会,时机

 
assertive [ə'sə:tiv]

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adj. 断定的,过分自信的

联想记忆
X
单词assertive 联想记忆:
as强行+sert加入,插入+ive→断言的;确定的
 
effective [i'fektiv]

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adj. 有效的,有影响的

联想记忆
X
单词effective 联想记忆:
ef出,fect做-做出来的效果
 
stress [stres]

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n. 紧张,压力
v. 强调,着重

 
tolerance ['tɔlərəns]

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n. 忍耐力,宽容,容忍,公差

 
tend [tend]

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v. 趋向,易于,照料,护理

 


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