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2006年英语专业八级真题听力 Mini-lecture(2)

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Now, let's move on to the second approach to meaning—that is, meaning is created by and contained in the text itself.

现在,让我们转向第二种方法——即,意思是由文本本身产生并包含在文本中。
Does the meaning exist in the text?
文本中是否存在意义?
Some scholars argue that the formal properties of the text like grammar, diction, uses of image and so on and so forth, contain and produce the meaning,
一些学者认为,文本的形式属性,如语法、措辞、形象的使用等,包含并产生了意义,
so that any educated or competent reader will inevitably come to more or less the same interpretation as any other.
使任何受过教育的或有能力的读者都不可避免地,或多或少地得到与其他读者相同的解读。
As far as I am concerned, the meaning is not only to be found in the literary traditions and grammatical conventions of meaning
在我看来,意义不仅存在于文学传统和意义的语法规范中,
but also in the cultural codes which have been handed down from generation to generation.
也存在于代代相传的文化规范中。
So when we and other readers, including the author as well, are said to come up with similar interpretations,
因此,当我们和其他读者,包括作者,被认为有类似的解读,
that kind of agreement could be created by common traditions and conventions of usage, practice and interpretation.
这种相似可以由共同的传统和使用规范、惯例和解释导致。
In other words, we have some kind of shared bases for the same interpretation, but that does not mean that readers agree on the meaning all the time.
换句话说,我们有某种共同的基础以得出相同的解读,但这并不意味着读者永远会在意义方面达成一致。
In different time periods, with different cultural perspectives, including class, belief and world view,
在不同的时期,不同的文化视角,包括阶级,信仰和世界观,
readers, I mean competent readers, can arrive at different interpretations of texts: So meaning in the text is determined by how readers see it.
读者,我的意思是,有能力的读者,会对文本有不同的解读:所以文本中的意义取决于读者如何看待它。
It is not contained in the text in a fixed way.
它不是以固定的方式包含在文本中。
Now, the third approach to meaning—that is, meaning is created by the reader.
第三种弄清意思的方法是,意思是由读者创造的。
Does the meaning then exist in the reader's response? In a sense, this is inescapable.
在读者的反应中是否存在意义?从某种意义上说,这是不可避免的。
Meaning exists only in so far as it means to someone, and literary works are written in order to evoke sets of responses in the reader.
只有作品对某人有意义的时候,意义才会存在,而文学作品是为了唤起读者的反应。
This leads us to consider three essential issues.
这让我们考虑三个基本问题。
The first is—meaning is social— that is, language and conventions work only at shared meaning and our way of viewing the world can exist only as shared or sharable.
第一个,意义是社会的,即语言和惯例只在共同的意义上起作用,而我们看待世界的方式只能是共有的。
Similarly, when we read a text, we are participating in social or cultural meaning.
同样地,当我们阅读文本时,我们也在参与社会或文化的意义。
So a response to a piece of literary work is not merely an individual thing but is part of culture and history.
因此对一篇文学作品的反应不仅仅是一件个人的事,也是文化和历史的一部分。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
inevitably [in'evitəbli]

想一想再看

adv. 不可避免地

 
response [ri'spɔns]

想一想再看

n. 回答,响应,反应,答复
n. [宗

联想记忆
X
单词response 联想记忆:
re回+spond承诺→承诺回去;respond的名词→回答;答应
 
concerned [kən'sə:nd]

想一想再看

adj. 担忧的,关心的

 
merely ['miəli]

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adv. 仅仅,只不过

 
essential [i'senʃəl]

想一想再看

n. 要素,要点
adj. 必要的,重要的,本

联想记忆
X
单词essential 联想记忆:
essence(n 基本;本质;香精)
 
social ['səuʃəl]

想一想再看

adj. 社会的,社交的
n. 社交聚会

 
produce [prə'dju:s]

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n. 产品,农作物
vt. 生产,提出,引起,

联想记忆
X
单词produce 联想记忆:
pro向前,duce引导-引导出的产品-农产品
 
evoke [i'vəuk]

想一想再看

vt. 唤起,引起

联想记忆
X
单词evoke 联想记忆:
e出,voke喊-喊出名字来-使想起
 
contained [kən'teind]

想一想再看

adj. 泰然自若的,从容的;被控制的 v. 包含;遏制

 
interpretation [in.tə:pri'teiʃən]

想一想再看

n. 解释,阐释,翻译,(艺术的)演绎

 


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