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2008年英语专业八级真题听力 Mini-lecture(2)

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First is the historical reason. This is related to the colonial history.

首先是历史原因。这与殖民历史有关。
As we know, when the Pilgrim Fathers landed on the Massachusetts coast in 1620 after their journey from England,
我们都知道,1620年清教徒祖先从英格兰来到马萨诸塞海岸时,
they brought with them not just a set of religious beliefs, a pioneering spirit or a desire for colonization, but also their language.
他们带来的不仅仅是宗教信仰,开拓精神,殖民的野心,还有他们的语言。
Although many years later, the Americans broke away from their colonial master, the language of English remained and still does.
尽管许多年后,美国人脱离了殖民宗主国,但英语留下了,而且至今仍然存在。
It was the same in Australia, too.
澳大利亚也是一样。
When Commander Phillip planted the British flag in Sydney cove on the 26th January, 1788,
1788年1月26日,当菲利普船长在悉尼湾(Sydney cove)插上英国国旗时,
it was not just a bunch of British convicts and their guardians, but also a language.
来到澳大利亚的不仅是一群英国罪犯和他们的看守,还有一种语言。
In other parts of the former British Empire, English rapidly became a unifying or dominating means of control.
在其他大英帝国之前的殖民地,英语迅速成为一种统一各方或者巩固统治地位的控制手段。
For example, it became a lingua franca in India where a variety of indigenous languages made the use of any one of them as a whole country system problematic.
例如,因为印度有多种土著语言,将任何一种语言作为全国通用语,都会造成严重的问题,所以英语成为印度的通用语。
So the imposition of English as the one language of administration helps maintain the colonizers' control and power,
因此,将英语作为政府语言强制推行,有助于维持殖民者的控制和权力,
thus English traveled around many parts of the world in those days.
所以,英语在那些日子里传遍了世界的许多地方。
And long after that colonial power has faded away,
如今殖民权力已经消失很久,
it is still widely used as a main or at least an institutional language in countries as far apart as Jamaica and Pakistan, Uganda and New Zealand.
英语仍然作为主要语言或至少是惯用语言,在某些国家广泛应用,如牙买加,巴基斯坦,乌干达和新西兰。
That is the first factor.
这是第一个因素。
Now the second major factor in the spread of English has been the spread of commerce throughout the world.
英语传播的第二个主要因素是商业在世界各地的传播。
The spread of international commerce has taken English along with it. This is the 20th century phenomenon of globalization.
国际商务的传播也带动了英语的发展。这是20世纪的全球化现象。
Therefore, one of the first sights many travelers see when arriving in countries as diverse as Brazil, China, for example,
因此,许多游客到其他国家时,不管是巴西,还是中国,看到的第一个景象,
is the yellow twin arch sign of MacDonald's fast food restaurant or some other famous brands outlets.
就是麦当劳快餐店的黄色双拱门标志或其他知名品牌的店面。
And without doubt, English is used as the language of communication in the international business community.
毫无疑问,英语也是国际商界用来交流的语言。
And the third factor related to the popular use of English is the booming international travel.
第三个与英语流行有关的因素是蓬勃发展的国际旅游业。
And you will find that much travel and tourism is carried on around the world in English.
你会发现很多人在世界各地旅游都会使用英语。
Of course this is not always the case, as the multi-lingualism of many tourism workers in different countries demonstrate.
当然,许多国家旅游工作者的多语言现象都显示,并不总是如此。
But a visit to most airports on the globe will show signs not only in the language of that country but also with English,
但是,世界上大多数机场的标志不仅有本国语言的版本,还会有英文版,
just as many airline announcements broadcast in English too, whatever the language of the country the airport is situated in.
正如许多航空公司的通告都用英语,无论机场所在国家的语言是什么。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
administration [əd.mini'streiʃən]

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n. 行政,管理,行政部门

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X
单词administration 联想记忆:
ad+(mini小+ster→小人→古代大臣称自己是“小人”→部长,大臣)→做部长→管理,治理+ation→行政,管理
 
demonstrate ['demənstreit]

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vt. 示范,演示,证明
vi. 示威

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X
单词demonstrate 联想记忆:
de加强语义,monst显示一加强显示一证明
 
institutional [.insti'tju:ʃənəl]

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adj. 制度上的,惯例的,机构的

 
variety [və'raiəti]

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n. 多样,种类,杂耍

 
phenomenon [fi'nɔminən]

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n. 现象,迹象,(稀有)事件

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X
单词phenomenon 联想记忆:
phen显示+omen预兆+on→显示预兆→现象
 
related [ri'leitid]

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adj. 相关的,有亲属关系的

 
commander [kə'mɑ:ndə]

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n. 司令官,指挥官

 
problematic [.prɔbli'mætik]

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adj. 问题的,有疑问的

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X
单词problematic 联想记忆:
problem问题+atic表形容词,“有…性质的”→有问题的
 
indigenous [in'didʒinəs]

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adj. 本地的,土生土长的,天生的

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X
单词indigenous 联想记忆:
in里面,di地,gen产生,ous-在地里产生的-土生土长的in里面,dig挖-拼命往下挖,想要本地的人参
 
flag [flæg]

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n. 旗,旗帜,信号旗
vt. (以旗子)标出

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X
单词flag 联想记忆:
在没风的时候flag就flag
 


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