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2010年英语专业八级真题听力 Mini-lecture(3)

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The third is proximity, posture and echoing. Proximity refers to the physical distance between speakers.

第三种是距离、姿势和效仿。距离指的是说话人之间的实际距离。
This can indicate a number of things and can also be used to consciously send messages about intent.
这可以表明很多事情,也可以用来有意识地传达意图。
Closeness, for example, indicates intimacy or threat to many speakers. But distance may show formality, or lack of interest.
例如,距离近对许多说话者来说意味着亲密或者威胁。而距离远可以表达礼貌,或者缺乏兴趣。
Once again, I'd like to say, proximity is also both a matter of personal style, and is often culture bound.
我想再说一次,距离表达的意义也因人而异,跟文化也有关。
So, what may seem normal to a speaker from one culture may appear unnecessarily close or distant to a speaker from another.
因此,在这种文化中说话者觉得很正常的距离,到了另一种文化中,可能显得不必要地亲近或疏远。
And standing close to someone may be quite appropriate in some situations such as an informal party,
在某些情况下,比如在非正式的聚会上,站得离某人很近合适,
but completely out of place in other situations, such as a meeting with a superior.
但在其他场合却完全不合适,比如与上级见面。
Next, posture. Posture means the way in which someone holds his or her body, especially the back, shoulders and head, when standing, walking or sitting.
接下来是姿势。姿势指的是身体的摆放方式,特别是背部、肩膀和头部,在站立、行走或坐着时的姿势。
A few examples. Hunched shoulders and a hanging head give a powerful indication of whether the person is happy or not.
举几个例子。耸肩和低头有力地说明了这个人是否开心。
A lowered head when speaking to a superior, with or without eye contact can convey the appropriate relationship in some cultures.
在有些文化中,与上级交谈时低着头,不管有没有眼神交流,都可以表现出融洽的关系。
On the other hand, direct level eye contact, changes the nature of interaction, and can be seen as either open or challenging.
另一方面,直接的平视,改变了互动的性质,可以被看作是开放的或具有挑战意味的。
Last, echoing. Now, what is echoing? Let me start with an example. Some of you may have noticed this phenomenon in your experience.
最后是效仿。那么这是什么?我先举个例子。你们可能已经注意到了这一现象。
When two people are keen to agree each other, they would likely, though unconsciously adopt the same posture, as if an imitation of each other.
当两个人想要达成一致时,他们很可能会采用相同的姿势,尽管是不自觉的,就像彼此模仿。
They sit or stand in the same manner. When used in this way, echoing appears to complement the verbal communication.
他们会以同一个姿势坐着或者站着。这时,效仿似乎是对言语交际的补充。
Of course, when such imitation is carried out consciously, it often indicates that someone is mocking at another speaker.
当然,有意识地进行这种模仿时,这经常表明有人戏弄另一位说话人。
Ok, in today's lecture, we looked at some paralinguistic features, such as tone of voice, gesture and posture.
好的,在今天的课上,我们看了一些副语言的特征,比如声调,手势和姿势。
These features, together with linguistic features of language, like grammar, or vocabulary,
这些特征,加上语言的语言特征,比如语法,或词汇,
are all part of the way we communicate with each other in face-to-face encounters.
都是我们面对面交流的一部分。
In our next lecture, we'll watch some video material, and see how people actually use paralinguistic means in communication to express their intention or desire or mood.
下一讲中,我们会看一些视频材料,看看人们如何在交流中使用副语言方式表达他们的意图、想法或情绪。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
consciously ['kɔnʃəsli]

想一想再看

adv. 有意识地,自觉地

 
posture ['pɔstʃə]

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n. 姿势,态度,情形
vt. 作 ... 姿

联想记忆
X
单词posture 联想记忆:
源于pose摆姿势
 
intent [in'tent]

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n. 意图,目的,意向,含义 adj. 专心的,决心的,

 
communication [kə.mju:ni'keiʃn]

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n. 沟通,交流,通讯,传达,通信

 
appropriate [ə'prəupriət]

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adj. 适当的,相称的
vt. 拨出(款项)

联想记忆
X
单词appropriate 联想记忆:
propr拥有-使自己拥有-挪用
 
phenomenon [fi'nɔminən]

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n. 现象,迹象,(稀有)事件

联想记忆
X
单词phenomenon 联想记忆:
phen显示+omen预兆+on→显示预兆→现象
 
verbal ['və:bəl]

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adj. 动词的,口头的,用言辞的,用文字的

 
adopt [ə'dɔpt]

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v. 采用,收养,接受

联想记忆
X
单词adopt 联想记忆:
ad朝向,opt选择-通过选择-采纳
 
gesture ['dʒestʃə]

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n. 手势,姿态
v. 作手势表达

联想记忆
X
单词gesture 联想记忆:
gest带来-带来信息的动作-手势
 
interaction [.intə'rækʃən]

想一想再看

n. 相互作用,相互影响,互动交流

联想记忆
X
单词interaction 联想记忆:
intel相互,action作用-相互作用=interplay
 


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