Having discussed ways to sample behaviour in research, we are now moving onto another issue, that is, what researchers should do to record behaviour as it occurs,
that is whether researchers are active or passive in recording behaviour.
This refers to the methods of observation. Observational methods can be classified as "observation with intervention" or "observation without intervention".
Observation with intervention can be made in at least two ways, participant observation and field experiment.
In participant observation, observers, that is researchers, play a dual role: They observe people's behaviour and they participate actively in the situation they are observing.
If individuals who are being observed know that the observer is present to collect information about their behaviour, this is undisguised participant observation.
But in disguised participant observation, those who are being observed do not know that they are being observed.
Another method of observation with intervention is field experiment. What is a field experiment?
When an observer controls one or more conditions in a natural setting in order to determine the effect on behaviour, this procedure is called field experiment.
The field experiment represents the most extreme form of intervention in observational methods.
The essential difference between field experiments and other observational methods is that researchers have more control in field experiments.
Now let's take a look at observation without intervention.
Observation without intervention is also called naturalistic observation because its main purpose is to describe behaviour as it normally occurs,
that is, in a natural setting, without any attempt by the observer to intervene.
An observer using this method of observation acts as a passive recorder of what occurs. The events occur naturally and are not controlled by the observer.
OK, in today's lecture, we have focused on how to make decisions of sampling before beginning our observation, and what we can do during observation.
I hope what we've discussed will help you in your future research design.