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2012年英语专业八级真题听力 Mini-lecture(3)

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Having discussed ways to sample behaviour in research, we are now moving onto another issue, that is, what researchers should do to record behaviour as it occurs,

在讨论了研究中行为的采样方法后,我们现在开始讨论另一个问题,即研究人员在行为发生时应如何记录行为,
that is whether researchers are active or passive in recording behaviour.
即研究人员是主动还是被动地记录行为。
This refers to the methods of observation. Observational methods can be classified as "observation with intervention" or "observation without intervention".
这是指观察的方法。观察方法可分为“干预观察”或“不干预观察”。
Observation with intervention can be made in at least two ways, participant observation and field experiment.
干预观察可以通过至少两种方式进行,参与性观察和现场实验。
In participant observation, observers, that is researchers, play a dual role: They observe people's behaviour and they participate actively in the situation they are observing.
在参与性观察中,观察者,即研究人员,扮演着双重角色:他们观察人们的行为,并积极参与到所观察到的情境中去。
If individuals who are being observed know that the observer is present to collect information about their behaviour, this is undisguised participant observation.
如果被观察到的个体知道观察者在场是为了收集关于他们行为的信息,这是无伪装的参与性观察。
But in disguised participant observation, those who are being observed do not know that they are being observed.
但在伪装的参与性观察中,被观察到的人并不知道有人观察他们。
Another method of observation with intervention is field experiment. What is a field experiment?
另一种干预观察是现场实验。什么是现场实验?
When an observer controls one or more conditions in a natural setting in order to determine the effect on behaviour, this procedure is called field experiment.
观察者控制自然情境中的一个或多个条件,以确定对行为的影响,这个过程称现场实验。
The field experiment represents the most extreme form of intervention in observational methods.
现场实验的干涉形式是所有观测方法中最极端的。
The essential difference between field experiments and other observational methods is that researchers have more control in field experiments.
现场实验和其他观察方法的本质区别在于,现场实验中研究人员有较大的控制权。
Now let's take a look at observation without intervention.
现在我们看一看不干预观察。
Observation without intervention is also called naturalistic observation because its main purpose is to describe behaviour as it normally occurs,
不干预观察也被称为自然观察,因为它的主要目的是描述正常情况下的行为,
that is, in a natural setting, without any attempt by the observer to intervene.
也就是说,在自然情境中,观察者没有干预的行为。
An observer using this method of observation acts as a passive recorder of what occurs. The events occur naturally and are not controlled by the observer.
使用这种观察法的观察者积极记录发生的事情。事件自然发生,不受观察者控制。
OK, in today's lecture, we have focused on how to make decisions of sampling before beginning our observation, and what we can do during observation.
好的,今天我们集中讨论了在开始观察之前如何做采样方法的选择,以及在观察过程中我们能做什么。
I hope what we've discussed will help you in your future research design.
我希望我们讨论的内容能对你们今后的研究设计有帮助。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
participate [pɑ:'tisipeit]

想一想再看

vt. 分享
vi. 参加,参与

联想记忆
X
单词participate 联想记忆:
parti部分+cip进入+ate→进入一部分→参加,参与
 
intervene [.intə'vi:n]

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vi. 干涉,干预,插入,介入,调停,阻挠

联想记忆
X
单词intervene 联想记忆:
inter中间,vene来到-来到中间-干涉
 
recording [ri'kɔ:diŋ]

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n. 录音 动词record的现在分词

联想记忆
X
单词recording 联想记忆:
源于:record(v 记录;录音)
 
sample ['sæmpl]

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n. 样品,样本
vt. 采样,取样

联想记忆
X
单词sample 联想记忆:
s[=se分开]+ample拿,获得→分开拿出→样品,标本
 
issue ['iʃju:]

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n. 发行物,期刊号,争论点
vi. & vt

 
collect [kə'lekt]

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v. 收集,聚集
v. 推论

联想记忆
X
单词collect 联想记忆:
col一起+lect选择,收集→收到一起→收集,集中
 
intervention [.intə'venʃən]

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n. 插入,介入,调停

 
sampling ['sæmpliŋ]

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n. 抽样,样品 动词sample的现在分词形式

 
observation [.ɔbzə'veiʃən]

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n. 观察,观察力,评论
adj. 被设计用来

联想记忆
X
单词observation 联想记忆:
observe观察+ation→观察
 
participant [pɑ:'tisipənt]

想一想再看

n. 参与者

联想记忆
X
单词participant 联想记忆:
participate参加+ant表名词,“…人”→参与者
 


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