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2015年英语专业八级真题听力 Mini-lecture(1)

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Understanding Academic Lectures

理解学术讲座
Good morning, everybody.
大家早上好。
Now at the university you, as students, are often called on to perform many types of listening tasks:
现在在大学里,你们作为学生,在各种场合下都需要认真听:
listening in a group discussion, listening to a teacher on a one-to-one basis, and listening to academic lectures.
小组讨论中要听同学说话,一对一听老师说话,听学术讲座。
So what I'm going to talk about today is what a listener needs to be able to do in order to comprehend an academic lecture efficiently.
我今天要讲的是听众需要怎么做才能有效地理解学术讲座。
OK. What do you need to do in order to understand the lecture?
好。要理解讲座,你需要做些什么?
Now there are four things that I'm going to talk about.
我要讲四件事。
The first thing is that you need to be aware of all of the parts of the language that carry meaning.
首先,你需要知道语言的所有部分都有意义。
You all know that words carry meaning.
你们都知道词语是有意义的。
So you've got to be aware of the vocabulary of the language, but there are some other features.
所以你必须注意讲座的词汇,但还有其他一些方面。
For one thing, you need to be aware of stress.
首先,你需要注意重音。
Let me give you an example.
举个例子。
"I went to the bar."
“我去了酒吧。”
"I went to the bar."
“我去了酒吧。”
It makes a difference.
这就不一样了。
In the second example, I'm stressing the fact that it was me and not someone else so that this means stress has some meaning.
在第二个例子中,我强调的是我,而不是别人,所以这意味着重音也有意义。
Now the next thing you might want to listen for is intonation.
接下来你需要听的是语调。
For example, if I say "He came." "He came?"
例如,我说“他来了”。”“他来?”
There are two different meanings.
这是两种不同的意思。
One is a statement, the other one is a question.
一个是陈述,另一个是提问。
And another thing you need to listen for is rhythm.
还有一点你需要听,就是节奏。
For instance, "Can you see, Mary?" VS "Can you see Mary?" Dadadadada. Dadadadada.
例如:“你能看见吗,玛丽?”和“你能看到玛丽吗?”等等。
Those two mean something different.
这两个意思不同。
In the first one, they are talking directly to Mary, while the second one means"Can you see Mary over there?"
第一个句子中,他们直接和玛丽说话,第二个意思是,“你能看见玛丽在那边吗?”
Now the next thing you must do when you listen is that you need to add information that the lecturer expects you to add.
还有件事,就是补充讲者希望你补充的信息。
All lecturers assume that they share some information with their audience and that their audience does not need them to explain every word.
所有的讲者都认为他们和听众都掌握了某些信息,听众不需要他们逐字解释。
And listeners have an ability to add this information due to two sources of information.
听者可以从两种信息来源获得信息,所以是可以添加这些信息的。
That is: 1) their knowledge of a particular subject; and 2) their knowledge or experience of the world.
那就是:1)他们对某一特定学科的知识;2)他们的知识或经验。
So remember, listening is not a matter of just absorbing the speaker's words - the listener has to do more than that.
所以请记住,倾听并不是仅仅记住讲者说的话——听众需要做的不止这些。
The listener is not a tape recorder, absorbing the speaker's words and putting them into his or her brain.
听者不是录音机,不能只是听了别人的话并存入大脑中。
Rather, listening involves hearing the speaker's words and reinterpreting them, adding information if necessary.
相反,倾听包括听讲者说话并重新解释这些信息,如果有必要的话,还要补充一些信息。
So the meaning is not in the word alone, rather it is in the person who uses it or responds to it
所以,意思并不仅仅存在于词汇中,还在于词汇使用者和回应者。
so that the second thing that a listener must do add information that the lecturer assumes that they share.
所以,听者必须做的第二件事就是补充讲者认为大家都知道的信息。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
statement ['steitmənt]

想一想再看

n. 声明,陈述

联想记忆
X
单词statement 联想记忆:
state站,立+ment→站着说话→声明;陈述
 
lecturer ['lektʃərə]

想一想再看

n. 演讲者,讲师

 
academic [.ækə'demik]

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adj. 学术的,学院的,理论的
n.

 
stress [stres]

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n. 紧张,压力
v. 强调,着重

 
comprehend [.kɔmpri'hend]

想一想再看

vt. 充分理解,包括

联想记忆
X
单词comprehend 联想记忆:
com全部+prehend抓住→全部抓住→包括,理解
 
particular [pə'tikjulə]

想一想再看

adj. 特殊的,特别的,特定的,挑剔的
n.

联想记忆
X
单词particular 联想记忆:
part部分+icuar有…的→有自己的部分→特别的;各自的
 
perform [pə'fɔ:m]

想一想再看

v. 执行,运转,举行,表演

联想记忆
X
单词perform 联想记忆:
per完全,彻底+form形状→从头到尾做出形状→表演;执行(任务)
 
efficiently [i'fiʃəntli]

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adv. 有效地

 
listener ['lisənə]

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n. 听者,听众

 
assume [ə'sju:m]

想一想再看

vt. 假定,设想,承担; (想当然的)认为

联想记忆
X
单词assume 联想记忆:
as朝向,sume拿,取-拿住-承担(责任、职务)
 


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