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《新时代的中国国防》白皮书(2)(中英对照)

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I. International Security Situation

一、国际安全形势
The world today is undergoing profound changes unseen in a century. As economic globalization, the information society, and cultural diversification develop in an increasingly multi-polar world, peace, development and win-win cooperation remain the irreversible trends of the times. Nonetheless, there are prominent destabilizing factors and uncertainties in international security. The world is not yet a tranquil place.
当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,世界多极化、经济全球化、社会信息化、文化多样化深入发展,和平、发展、合作、共赢的时代潮流不可逆转,但国际安全面临的不稳定性不确定性更加突出,世界并不太平。
The International Strategic Landscape Is Going Through Profound Changes
国际战略格局深刻演变
As the realignment of international powers accelerates and the strength of emerging markets and developing countries keeps growing, the configuration of strategic power is becoming more balanced. The pursuit of peace, stability and development has become a universal aspiration of the international community with forces for peace predominating over elements of war. However, international security system and order are undermined by growing hegemonism, power politics, unilateralism and constant regional conflicts and wars.
国际力量加快分化组合,新兴市场国家和发展中国家力量持续上升,战略力量对比此消彼长、更趋均衡,促和平、求稳定、谋发展已成为国际社会的普遍诉求,和平力量的上升远远超过战争因素的增长。但是,霸权主义、强权政治、单边主义时有抬头,地区冲突和局部战争持续不断,国际安全体系和秩序受到冲击。
International strategic competition is on the rise. The US has adjusted its national security and defense strategies, and adopted unilateral policies. It has provoked and intensified competition among major countries, significantly increased its defense expenditure, pushed for additional capacity in nuclear, outer space, cyber and missile defense, and undermined global strategic stability. NATO has continued its enlargement, stepped up military deployment in Central and Eastern Europe, and conducted frequent military exercises. Russia is strengthening its nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities for strategic containment, and striving to safeguard its strategic security space and interests. The European Union (EU) is accelerating its security and defense integration to be more independent in its own security.
国际战略竞争呈上升之势。美国调整国家安全战略和国防战略,奉行单边主义政策,挑起和加剧大国竞争,大幅增加军费投入,加快提升核、太空、网络、导弹防御等领域能力,损害全球战略稳定。北约持续扩员,加强在中东欧地区军事部署,频繁举行军事演习。俄罗斯强化核、非核战略遏制能力,努力维护战略安全空间和自身利益。欧盟独立维护自身安全的倾向增强,加快推进安全和防务一体化建设。
Global and regional security issues are on the increase. International arms control and disarmament efforts have suffered setbacks, with growing signs of arms races. The non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction remains problematic. The international non-proliferation regime is compromised by pragmatism and double standards, and hence faces new challenges. Extremism and terrorism keep spreading. Non-traditional security threats involving cyber security, bio-security and piracy are becoming more pronounced. The Iranian nuclear issue has taken an unexpected turn, and there is no easy political solution to the Syrian issue. The security of individual countries is becoming increasingly intertwined, interlinked and interactive. No country can respond alone or stand aloof.
全球和地区性安全问题持续增多。国际军控和裁军遭遇挫折,军备竞赛趋势显现。防止大规模杀伤性武器扩散形势错综复杂,国际防扩散机制受到实用主义和双重标准危害,面临新的挑战。极端主义、恐怖主义不断蔓延,网络安全、生物安全、海盗活动等非传统安全威胁日益凸显。伊朗核问题解决出现波折,叙利亚问题政治解决仍面临困难。各国安全的交融性、关联性、互动性不断增强,没有哪一个国家能够独立应对或独善其身。
The Asia-Pacific Security Situation Remains Generally Stable
亚太安全形势总体稳定
Asia-Pacific countries are increasingly aware that they are members of a community with shared destiny. Addressing differences and disputes through dialogue and consultation has become a preferred policy option for regional countries, making the region a stable part of the global landscape. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is forging a constructive partnership of non-alliance and non-confrontation that targets no third party, expanding security and defense cooperation and creating a new model for regional security cooperation. The China-ASEAN Defense Ministers' Informal Meeting and the ASEAN Defense Ministers' Meeting Plus (ADMM-Plus) play positive roles in enhancing trust among regional countries through military exchanges and cooperation. The situation of the South China Sea is generally stable and improving as regional countries are properly managing risks and differences. Steady progress has been made in building a coordinated counter-terrorism mechanism among the militaries of the regional countries. A balanced, stable, open and inclusive Asian security architecture continues to develop.
亚太各国命运共同体意识增强,通过对话协商处理分歧和争端成为主要政策取向,推动本地区成为全球格局中的稳定板块。上海合作组织构建不结盟、不对抗、不针对第三方的建设性伙伴关系,拓展防务安全领域合作,开创区域安全合作新模式。中国-东盟防长非正式会晤、东盟防长扩大会发挥积极作用,通过加强军事交流合作等途径促进相互信任。南海形势趋稳向好,域内国家妥善管控风险分歧。地区国家军队反恐协调机制等合作不断深化。均衡稳定、开放包容的亚洲特色安全架构不断发展。
As the world economic and strategic center continues to shift towards the Asia-Pacific, the region has become a focus of major country competition, bringing uncertainties to regional security. The US is strengthening its Asia-Pacific military alliances and reinforcing military deployment and intervention, adding complexity to regional security. The deployment of the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system in the Republic of Korea (ROK) by the US has severely undermined the regional strategic balance and the strategic security interests of regional countries. In an attempt to circumvent the post-war mechanism, Japan has adjusted its military and security policies and increased input accordingly, thus becoming more outward-looking in its military endeavors. Australia continues to strengthen its military alliance with the US and its military engagement in the Asia-Pacific, seeking a bigger role in security affairs.
世界经济和战略重心继续向亚太地区转移,亚太地区成为大国博弈的焦点,给地区安全带来不确定性。美国强化亚太军事同盟,加大军事部署和干预力度,给亚太安全增添复杂因素。美国在韩国部署“萨德”反导系统,严重破坏地区战略平衡,严重损害地区国家战略安全利益。日本调整军事安全政策,增加投入,谋求突破“战后体制”,军事外向性增强。澳大利亚持续巩固与美国的军事同盟,强化亚太地区军事参与力度,试图在安全事务中发挥更大作用。
Regional hotspots and disputes are yet to be resolved. Despite positive progress, the Korean Peninsula still faces uncertainty. South Asia is generally stable while conflicts between India and Pakistan flare up from time to time. Political reconciliation and reconstruction in Afghanistan is making progress in the face of difficulties. Problems still exist among regional countries, including disputes over territorial and maritime rights and interests, as well as discord for ethnic and religious reasons. Security hotspots rise from time to time in the region.
地区热点和争议问题依然存在。朝鲜半岛局势有所缓和但仍存在不确定因素,南亚形势总体稳定但印巴冲突不时发生,阿富汗国内政治和解和重建艰难推进。部分国家之间的领土和海洋权益争端、民族宗教矛盾等问题仍然存在,地区安全热点问题时起时伏。
China's Security Risks and Challenges Should Not Be Overlooked
国家安全面临的风险挑战不容忽视
China continues to enjoy political stability, ethnic unity and social stability. There has been a notable increase in China's overall national strength, global influence, and resilience to risks. China is still in an important period of strategic opportunity for development. Nevertheless, it also faces diverse and complex security threats and challenges.
中国继续保持政治安定、民族团结、社会稳定的良好局面,综合国力、国际影响力、抵御风险能力明显增强,仍处于发展的重要战略机遇期,同时也面临多元复杂的安全威胁和挑战。
The fight against separatists is becoming more acute. The Taiwan authorities, led by the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), stubbornly stick to "Taiwan independence" and refuse to recognize the 1992 Consensus, which embodies the one-China principle. They have gone further down the path of separatism by stepping up efforts to sever the connection with the mainland in favor of gradual independence, pushing for de jure independence, intensifying hostility and confrontation, and borrowing the strength of foreign influence. The "Taiwan independence" separatist forces and their actions remain the gravest immediate threat to peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait and the biggest barrier hindering the peaceful reunification of the country. External separatist forces for "Tibet independence" and the creation of "East Turkistan" launch frequent actions, posing threats to China's national security and social stability.
反分裂斗争形势更加严峻,民进党当局顽固坚持“台独”分裂立场,拒不承认体现一个中国原则的“九二共识”,加紧推行“去中国化”“渐进台独”,图谋推动“法理台独”,强化敌意对抗,挟洋自重,在分裂道路上越走越远。“台独”分裂势力及其活动始终是台海和平稳定的最大现实威胁,是祖国和平统一的最大障碍。境外“藏独”“东突”等分裂势力活动频繁,对国家安全和社会稳定构成威胁。
China's homeland security still faces threats. Land territorial disputes are yet to be completely resolved. Disputes still exist over the territorial sovereignty of some islands and reefs, as well as maritime demarcation. Countries from outside the region conduct frequent close-in reconnaissance on China by air and sea, and illegally enter China's territorial waters and the waters and airspace near China's islands and reefs, undermining China's national security.
国土安全依然面临威胁,陆地边界争议尚未彻底解决,岛屿领土问题和海洋划界争端依然存在,个别域外国家舰机对中国频繁实施抵近侦察,多次非法闯入中国领海及有关岛礁邻近海空域,危害中国国家安全。
China's overseas interests are endangered by immediate threats such as international and regional turmoil, terrorism, and piracy. Chinese diplomatic missions, enterprises and personnel around the world have been attacked on multiple occasions. Threats to outer space and cyber security loom large and the threat of non-traditional security issues posed by natural disasters and major epidemics is on the rise.
中国海外利益面临国际和地区动荡、恐怖主义、海盗活动等现实威胁,驻外机构、海外企业及人员多次遭到袭击。太空、网络安全威胁日益显现,自然灾害、重大疫情等非传统安全问题的危害上升。
Global Military Competition Is Intensifying
国际军事竞争日趋激烈
Major countries around the world are readjusting their security and military strategies and military organizational structures. They are developing new types of combat forces to seize the strategic commanding heights in military competition. The US is engaging in technological and institutional innovation in pursuit of absolute military superiority. Russia is advancing its New Look military reform. Meanwhile, the UK, France, Germany, Japan and India are rebalancing and optimizing the structure of their military forces.
世界各主要国家纷纷调整安全战略、军事战略,调整军队组织形态,发展新型作战力量,抢占军事竞争战略制高点。美国进行军事技术和体制创新,谋求绝对军事优势。俄罗斯深入推进“新面貌”军事改革,英国、法国、德国、日本、印度等国都在调整优化军事力量体系。
Driven by the new round of technological and industrial revolution, the application of cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), quantum information, big data, cloud computing and the Internet of Things is gathering pace in the military field. International military competition is undergoing historic changes. New and high-tech military technologies based on IT are developing rapidly. There is a prevailing trend to develop long-range precision, intelligent, stealthy or unmanned weaponry and equipment. War is evolving in form towards informationized warfare, and intelligent warfare is on the horizon.
在新一轮科技革命和产业变革推动下,人工智能、量子信息、大数据、云计算、物联网等前沿科技加速应用于军事领域,国际军事竞争格局正在发生历史性变化。以信息技术为核心的军事高新技术日新月异,武器装备远程精确化、智能化、隐身化、无人化趋势更加明显,战争形态加速向信息化战争演变,智能化战争初现端倪。
Great progress has been made in the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) with Chinese characteristics. However, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) has yet to complete the task of mechanization, and is in urgent need of improving its informationization. China's military security is confronted by risks from technology surprise and growing technological generation gap. Greater efforts have to be invested in military modernization to meet national security demands. The PLA still lags far behind the world's leading militaries.
中国特色军事变革取得重大进展,但机械化建设任务尚未完成,信息化水平亟待提高,军事安全面临技术突袭和技术代差被拉大的风险,军队现代化水平与国家安全需求相比差距还很大,与世界先进军事水平相比差距还很大。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
intervention [.intə'venʃən]

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n. 插入,介入,调停

 
discord ['diskɔ:d]

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n. 不调和,分歧,意见不一 vi. 不一致,不协调

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单词discord 联想记忆:
dis不,cord心脏,一致-不一致-不和谐
 
complexity [kəm'pleksiti]

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n. 复杂,复杂性,复杂的事物

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单词complexity 联想记忆:
com全部+plex重叠+ity表名词,指具备某种性质→复杂性
 
strengthen ['streŋθən]

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v. 加强,变坚固

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单词strengthen 联想记忆:
stre力量,ngthen-加强力量
 
progressive [prə'gresiv]

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adj. 前进的,渐进的
n. 进步人士

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单词progressive 联想记忆:
pro向前+gress=go,walk行走→向前走→前进→进步;进行+ive→进步的
 
application [.æpli'keiʃən]

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n. 应用; 申请; 专心
n. 应用软件程序

 
opportunity [.ɔpə'tju:niti]

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n. 机会,时机

 
external [ik'stə:nl]

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adj. 外部的,外面的,外来的,表面的
n.

 
terminal ['tə:minl]

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n. 终端机,终点,终点站,末端
adj. 末

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termin界限+al→终结的,终端
 
pronounced [prə'naunst]

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adj. 显著的,断然的,明确的 pronounce的过

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单词pronounced 联想记忆:
源于:pronounce(v 宣称,发音),d-被宣布的-明显的
 


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