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2006年考研英语真题第5篇 Intellectual

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Is it true that the American intellectual is rejected and considered of no account in his society?

美国的知识分子被他们的所在社会拒绝并不认为是社会组成的一部分,这一情况属实么?

I am going to suggest that it is not true.

我将暗示一下这不是真实的情况。

Father Bruckberger told part of the story when he observed that it is the intellectuals who have rejected America.

当父亲Bruckbergen观察发现正是知识分子自己拒绝了美国,他揭露了一部分真相。

But they have done more than that.

但是,他们所做的不仅限于此。

They have grown dissatisfied with the role of intellectual.

他们逐渐对知识分子的角色感到不满。

It is they, not America, who have become anti-intellectual.

正是他们自身,而不是美国,变为了反知识分子。

First, the object of our study pleads for definition.

首先,我们的研究目标是来力求一个定义。

What is an intellectual?

什么是知识分子?

I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in a Socratic way about moral problems.

我把知识分子定义为这样的个体:他用苏格拉底的方式思考道德问题,并以此作为其生命中的主要职责与乐趣。

He explores such problems consciously, articulately, and frankly, first by asking factual questions, then by asking moral questions,

他首先提出实际问题,然后提出道德层面上的问题,

finally by suggesting action which seems appropriate in the light of the factual and moral information which he has obtained.

最后提出看起来和他所获得的实际和道德信息相符合的行动建议。

His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a manner as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision.

通过这一系列行为来清晰明了真实地探究此类问题。知识分子的作用与法官的作用类似,后者必须承担用尽可能明显的方式来揭示让他做出决定的推理过程的责任。

This definition excludes many individuals usually referred to as intellectuals -- the average scientist, for one.

该定义排除了多个通常被称为知识分子的个体――对于个人而言是普通的科学家。

I have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems.

我之所以把普通科学家排除在外,是因为虽然他的成就有助于解决道德问题,但是他只是触及了这些问题的事实方面。

Like other human beings, he encounters moral issues even in the everyday performance of his routine duties --

和其他人类一样,即使在日常例行职责的表现中也会遇到道德问题--

he is not supposed to cook his experiments, manufacture evidence, or doctor his reports.

人们并不会要求他可以烹饪实验,加工事实或医治报告。

But his primary task is not to think about the moral code which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business.

但是普通科学家的主要任务并非是思考约束其行为的道德准则,这正如人们不期望商人致力于探究商业行为规范。

During most of his waking life he will take his code for granted, as the businessman takes his ethics.

在其大部分的人生中,他将认同他的行为准则,正如商人认同商人的道德规范。

The definition also excludes the majority of teachers, despite the fact that teaching has traditionally been the method whereby many intellectuals earn their living.

该定义同样排除了多数教师,尽管事实上,教育是许多知识分子用来谋生的传统方法。

They may teach very well and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment.

教师可能擅长教书,而且不仅仅专注于赚钱,但是大部分教师对涉及人类道德判断的问题很少或没有进行独立的思考。

This description even fits the majority of eminent scholars.

大部分著名学者甚至都符合这一描述。

Being learned in some branch of human knowledge is one thing, living in "public and illustrious thoughts, ” as Emerson would say, is something else.

在人类知识的某一分支是专家是一回事;而生活在如爱默生过去常提到的"公共而勤勉的想法"之中又是另外一回事。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
evidence ['evidəns]

想一想再看

n. 根据,证据
v. 证实,证明

联想记忆
X
单词evidence 联想记忆:
e出+vid看+ence→[明显的证据]证据,证人
 
dissatisfied [,dis'sætisfaid]

想一想再看

adj. 不满意的;不高兴的;流露不满的 v. 使不满(

 
judgment ['dʒʌdʒmənt]

想一想再看

n. 裁判,宣告,该判决书

联想记忆
X
单词judgment 联想记忆:
judg判断+ment→判断,判断力
 
performance [pə'fɔ:məns]

想一想再看

n. 表演,表现; 履行,实行
n. 性能,本

联想记忆
X
单词performance 联想记忆:
perform表演+ance→表现;表演
 
code [kəud]

想一想再看

n. 码,密码,法规,准则
vt. 把 ...

 
factual ['fæktʃuəl]

想一想再看

adj. 事实的,真实的

 
obvious ['ɔbviəs]

想一想再看

adj. 明显的,显然的

联想记忆
X
单词obvious 联想记忆:
ob加强状态+vi道路+ous→就在路上→明显的
 
branch [brɑ:ntʃ]

想一想再看

n. 分支,树枝,分店,分部
v. 分支,分岔

 
function ['fʌŋkʃən]

想一想再看

n. 功能,函数,职务,重大聚会
vi. 运行

 
independent [indi'pendənt]

想一想再看

adj. 独立的,自主的,有主见的
n. 独立

联想记忆
X
单词independent 联想记忆:
in不+(de加强+pend=hang悬挂+able→可靠的)→独立的
 


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