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2007年考研英语真题第2篇 Intelligence Considered

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For the past several years, the Sunday newspaper supplement Parade has featured a column called “Ask Marilyn. ”

在过去的几年,《星期日报》的增刊《漫步》开设了一个名为《询问玛丽琳》的专栏。

People are invited to query Marilyn vos Savant, who at age 10 had tested at a mental level of someone about 23 years old;

人们被邀请去询问玛丽琳·沃斯·萨文特。玛丽琳·沃斯·萨文特在10岁时测试的智力水平达到别人 23 岁时的水平,

that gave her an IQ of 228 - the highest score ever recorded.

她的智商高达 228――是有记录的最高水平。

IQ tests ask you to complete verbal and visual analogies, to envision paper after it has been folded and cut, and to deduce numerical sequences, among other similar tasks.

智商测试要求你完成口头和视觉分析,要求你在纸张被折叠、剪切后想象它的形状,要求你推论数字的顺序,还有其他类似的项目。

So it is a bit confusing when vos Savant fields such queries from the average Joe (whose IQ is 100) as, What's the difference between love and fondness?

所以,当沃斯·萨文特面对普通人(智商为100)提出的像“热爱与喜爱之间的区别是什么?”

Or what is the nature of luck and coincidence?

或者“运气与巧合的特征是什么?”

It's not obvious how the capacity to visualize objects and to figure out numerical patterns suits one to answer questions that have eluded some of the best poets and philosophers.

这样的问题时,她感到有点困惑。设想物体、判断数字模式的能力如何使一个人能够回答难倒了一些最杰出的诗人和哲学家的问题,这可并不那么显而易见。

Clearly, intelligence encompasses more than a score on a test.

毫无疑问,智力包含的不仅仅是一次测试所得的分数。

Just what does it mean to be smart?

而聪明意味着什么?

How much of intelligence can be specified, and how much can we learn about it from neurology, genetics, computer science and other fields?

可以明确显示智力有多少?我们能够从神经学、遗传学、计算机科学以及其他领域了解的智力又有多少?

The defining term of intelligence in humans still seems to be the IQ score, even though IQ tests are not given as often as they used to be.

人类有关智力的定义性术语似乎仍然是智商分数,即使人们并不像以前那样经常进行智商测试。

The test comes primarily in two forms: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales

智商测试主要表现为两种形式:斯坦福—比奈特智力衡量表和威斯勒智力衡量表

(both come in adult and children's version).

(两种都包含成人和儿童测试类型)。

Generally costing several hundred dollars, they are usually given only by psychologists, although variations of them populate bookstores and the World Wide Web.

由于这些测试一般要花费几百美元,因此通常只有心理学家才进行这些测试,尽管这些测试变式在于书店和环球网上非常流行。

Superhigh scores like vos Savant's are no longer possible,

像沃斯·萨文特得到这样的超高分数也再不可能,

because scoring is now based on a statistical population distribution among age peers, rather than simply dividing the mental age by the chronological age and multiplying by 100.

因为现在的分数依据的是相同年龄者的学群体分布状况,而不是简单地通过实足年龄乘以 100 来划分智能年龄。

Other standardized tests, such as the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Exam (GRE), capture the main aspects of IQ tests.

其他标准测试,比如学术能力检测以及研究生入学考试,包含了智商测试的主要方面。

Such standardized tests may not assess all the important elements necessary to succeed in school and in life, argues Robert J. Sternberg.

罗伯特·杰·斯顿伯格认为,这样的标准测试不可能评估在学校和生活中取得成功所需的所有重要因素。

In his article “How Intelligent Is Intelligence Testing?”,

在他的《智力测试如何明智?》文章中,

Sternberg notes that traditional test best assess analytical and verbal skills but fail to measure creativity and practical knowledge, components also critical to problem solving and life success.

斯顿伯格指出,传统的测试最恰当地评估了分析能力和语言表达能力,但没有测量创造性和实际知识,这些也是解决问题和在生活中取得成功的关键因素。

Moreover, IQ tests do not necessarily predict so well once populations or situations change.

而且,一旦种群或环境发生变化,智商测试就不一定预测得那么准确。

Research has found that IQ predicted leadership skills when the tests were given under low-stress conditions,

研究发现,如果在压力小的状况下进行智商测试,那么这种测试就可以预测出领导才能,

but under high-stress conditions, IQ was negatively correlated with leadership - that is, it predicted the opposite.

但是, 在压力大状况下,智商测试所得的结果与领导才能的关系是否定的,也就是说,它预测的结果是相反的。

Anyone who has toiled through SAT will testify that test-taking skill also matters, whether it's knowing when to guess or what questions to skip.

任何经历过学术能力检测的人都会认为,应试能力也很重要,无论是知道何时应该进行推测,还是知道应该忽略什么问题。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
traditional [trə'diʃənəl]

想一想再看

adj. 传统的

 
testify ['testifai]

想一想再看

v. 证明,作证,声明

联想记忆
X
单词testify 联想记忆:
test测试,证据+ify→用证据证明→表明;证实
 
mental ['mentl]

想一想再看

adj. 精神的,脑力的,精神错乱的
n. 精

联想记忆
X
单词mental 联想记忆:
ment思考,神智+al→智力的;精神的
 
fondness ['fɔndnis]

想一想再看

n. 爱好,溺爱,喜爱 n. 蠢事

 
capacity [kə'pæsiti]

想一想再看

n. 能力,容量,容积; 资格,职位
adj.

联想记忆
X
单词capacity 联想记忆:
cap容纳+acity表名词,“有…倾向”→容量;能力
 
coincidence [kəu'insidəns]

想一想再看

n. 巧合,同时发生

 
deduce [di'dju:s]

想一想再看

vt. 演绎,推断,溯源

联想记忆
X
单词deduce 联想记忆:
de向下,duce引导-一步一步向下引导-演绎
 
predict [pri'dikt]

想一想再看

v. 预知,预言,预报,预测

联想记忆
X
单词predict 联想记忆:
pre预先+dict说话,断言→预言;预告
 
population [.pɔpju'leiʃən]

想一想再看

n. 人口 ,(全体)居民,人数

联想记忆
X
单词population 联想记忆:
popul人民+ation→人口
 
obvious ['ɔbviəs]

想一想再看

adj. 明显的,显然的

联想记忆
X
单词obvious 联想记忆:
ob加强状态+vi道路+ous→就在路上→明显的
 


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