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2008年考研英语真题第2篇 The Paperless Library

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It used to be so straightforward.

原本一切都很简单。

A team of researchers working together in the laboratory would submit the results of their research to a journal.

一组研究员在实验室里共同完成一个试验,把结果提交给某刊物,

A journal editor would then remove the authors' names and affiliations from the paper and send it to their peers for review.

刊物的编辑把作者姓名及相关信息隐去,把报告交给这些研究者的同行去审阅。

Depending on the comments received, the editor would accept the paper for publication or decline it.

根据评论意见,编辑将决定是否发表。

Copyright rested with the journal publisher, and researchers seeking knowledge of the results would have to subscribe to the journal.

因此,版权留在刊物出版社手上,辛苦探求知识的研究者反倒要花钱订阅刊物。

No longer. The Internet - and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government-funded research by restricting access to it - is making access to scientific results a reality.

现在不再是这样了。提供资金的机构施加压力,质疑为什么商业刊物可以通过限制刊载的手段从政府投资的研究项目中牟利,互联网使阅读科研结果成为现实。

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has just issued a report describing the far-reaching consequences of this.

经济合作及发展组织(OECD)近日发布一项调查,揭示了该现象所造成的深远影响。

The report, by John Houghton of Victoria University in Australia and Graham Vickery of the OECD, makes heavy reading for publishers who have, so far, made handsome profits.

澳大利亚维多利亚大学的 John Houghton 和经合组织的 Graham Vickery联合完成这一报告,内容使目前为止收入丰厚的出版商们感到汗颜。

But it goes further than that.

但是这项报告的意义远远不止于此,

It signals a change in what has, until now, been a key element of scientific endeavor.

它标志着科学尝试的一项关键性因素即将发生改变。

The value of knowledge and the return on the public investment in research depends, in part, upon wide distribution and ready access.

在某种程度上来说,知识的价值和公共投资能否取得较高回报,取决于是否能够得到广泛的流通、人们是否能够比较容易地获取这些研究成果。

It is big business. In America, the core scientific publishing market is estimated at between $7 billion and $11 billion.

这是一项很大的产业。在美国,核心科研出版市场产值每年在 70亿美元到110亿美元左右。

The International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers says that there are more than 2, 000 publishers worldwide specializing in these subjects.

国际科学、技术和医学出版社集团宣称全世界专业出版本类期刊的出版商有2000多家。

They publish more than 1. 2 million articles each year in some 16, 000 journals.

他们每年在 16000 种刊物上发表 120万篇以上文章。

This is now changing. According to the OECD report, some 75% of scholarly journals are now online.

这个数字现在有所变化。根据 OECD 报告,目前有 75%的专业期刊在互联网上有在线阅读。

Entirely new business models are emerging; three main ones were identified by the report's authors.

全新的商务模式正在形成,报告作者总结出其中三种。

There is the so-called big deal, where institutional subscribers pay for access to a collection of online journal titles through site-licensing agreements.

第一种是所谓的大订单模式,即机构团体订阅者通过签订网站协议付钱购买阅读一批刊物文章题目的权限。

There is open-access publishing, typically supported by asking the author (or his employer) to pay for the paper to be published.

第二种为开放式出版模式,这种方式的典型特点是要求作者(或其雇主)付费发表文章。

Finally, there are open-access archives, where organizations such as universities or international laboratories support institutional repositories.

最后一种为开放式档案模式,即一些组织,比如大学或者国际实验室建立和维护的一些机构数据库。

Other models exist that are hybrids of these three, such as delayed open-access, where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months, before making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it.

其他的模式都是对这三种的不同组合,比如延期开放式是指某一些期刊在发表文章的前六个月只允许付费阅览,此后转为免费阅读。

All this could change the traditional form of the peer-review process, at least for the publication of papers.

至少对论文的发表来说,这些都将颠覆传统的同行审阅模式。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
remove [ri'mu:v]

想一想再看

v. 消除,除去,脱掉,搬迁
n. 去除

联想记忆
X
单词remove 联想记忆:
re,move(n /v 移动)-移开
 
core [kɔ:]

想一想再看

n. 果心,核心,要点
vt. 挖去果核

 
technical ['teknikəl]

想一想再看

adj. 技术的,工艺的

 
identified

想一想再看

adj. 被识别的;经鉴定的;被认同者 v. 鉴定(id

 
traditional [trə'diʃənəl]

想一想再看

adj. 传统的

 
institutional [.insti'tju:ʃənəl]

想一想再看

adj. 制度上的,惯例的,机构的

 
element ['elimənt]

想一想再看

n. 元素,成分,组成部分,(复数)恶劣天气

 
straightforward [streit'fɔ:wəd]

想一想再看

adj. 笔直的,率直的

 
emerging [i'mə:dʒ]

想一想再看

vi. 浮现,(由某种状态)脱出,(事实)显现出来

 
scholarly ['skɔləli]

想一想再看

adj. 学究气的,学者派头的 名词scholar的形容

 


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