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2009年考研英语真题第5篇 Education as a Necessity of Life

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There is a marked difference between the education which everyone gets from living with others, and the deliberate educating of the young.

直接用于与他人交往的教育与专为年轻人设计的教育是明显不同的。

In the former case the education is incidental; it is natural and important, but it is not the express reason of the association.

在前者中,教育具有偶然性,自然而又重要,但教育并不是交往的明确动机。

It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; but this effect is not a part of its original motive.

可以说,衡量任何社会制度的价值在与它对扩大和改进经验的影响,但是这种影响并不是它最初动机的组成部分。

Religious associations began, for example, in the desire to secure the favor of overruling powers and to ward off evil influences;

例如,宗教的交往始于希望维护对统治力量的热情,避免不良影响;

family life in the desire to gratify appetites and secure family perpetuity; systematic labor, for the most part, because of enslavement to others, etc.

家庭生活是希望满足欲望,维护家庭的永恒发展;在很大程度上,有计划的劳动是为了奴役他人等等。

Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution.

只有逐步才能注意到一种制度的副作用,而要承认这种副作用是执行该制度的一种规定性因素则更加缓慢。

Even today, in our industrial life, apart from certain values of industriousness and thrift, the intellectual and emotional reaction of the forms of human association under which the world's work is carried on receives little attention as compared with physical output.

甚至今天,在工业生活中,除了勤劳和节俭这些价值之外,与有形的产出相比,我们很少对开展工作赖以存在的人类交往形式作出的智力和情感反应予以重视。

But in dealing with the young, the fact of association itself as an immediate human fact, gains in importance.

但是在与年轻人打交道时,交往本身是直接的,其重要性日益增加。

While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults.

在和年轻人交往时,我们容易忽略自己的行为对他们性格的影响,但是在与成人打交道时却并不如此容易。

The need of training is too evident; the pressure to accomplish a change in their attitude and habits is too urgent to leave these consequences wholly out of account.

显而易见,这需要参加培训。改变他们态度和习惯的压力非常迫切,必须对这些结果予以充分考虑。

Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life we cannot help considering whether or no we are forming the powers which will secure this ability.

既然我们的主要任务是让年轻人参与共同生活,我们禁不住要考虑是否我们正在形成获得这种能力的力量。

If humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through dealings with the young.

如果人类在认识方面取得了进步,意识到任何机构的最终价值在于它对人类的特殊影响,我们就有充分的理由相信这种教训大部分是通过与年轻人的交往而获得的。

We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering, a more formal kind of education -- that of direct tuition or schooling.

因此,我们要在从一直考虑的整个教育过程中辨认出一种比较正规的教育--直接教育或者学校教育。

In under-developed social groups, we find very little formal teaching and training.

我们发现,欠发达的社会群体很少有正规的教育和培训。

These groups mainly rely for instilling needed dispositions into the young upon the same sort of association which keeps the adults loyal to their group.

这些群体主要采取维护成年人忠于群体的交往形式,向年轻人灌输所需的性情。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
reaction [ri'ækʃən]

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n. 反应,反作用力,化学反应

联想记忆
X
单词reaction 联想记忆:
re反,action动-反应
 
systematic [.sisti'mætik]

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adj. 有系统的,分类的,体系的

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X
单词systematic 联想记忆:
system(n 系统),atic
 
association [ə.səusi'eiʃən]

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n. 联合,结合,交往,协会,社团,联想

联想记忆
X
单词association 联想记忆:
as加强+soc社会+ion→社团;联合
 
accomplish [ə'kɔmpliʃ]

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vt. 完成

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X
单词accomplish 联想记忆:
compl=complete 完成
 
deliberate [di'libərit]

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adj. 故意的,深思熟虑的,从容不迫的
vi

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X
单词deliberate 联想记忆:
de去掉,liber自由-做事谨慎就缺乏自由
 
ultimate ['ʌltimit]

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n. 终极,根本,精华
adj. 终极的,根本

 
thrift [θrift]

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adj. 节约,节俭
n. 节俭,节约

 
ignore [ig'nɔ:]

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vt. 不顾,不理,忽视

联想记忆
X
单词ignore 联想记忆:
I不+geore知道→不知道→不理睬;疏忽
 
incidental [.insi'dentl]

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adj. 附带的,偶然的,容易发生的

 
ward [wɔ:d]

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n. 守卫,监护,受监护人,病房,行政区
vt

 


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